Can the licensee be contractually prohibited from challenging the validity of intellectual property rights or registrations of a foreign licensor in your jurisdiction? The registration of security agreements generally requires the filing of documents with the CIPO: since October 1, 1989, Canada has been a «first to file» jurisdiction for patents. A foreign licensor may license the use of an invention that is the subject of a patent application pending in Canada. Licensing agreements in Canada can cover virtually all forms of intellectual property, including patents, trade secrets, know-how, trademarks, unregistered trademarks, service marks, trade names, copyrights, software, personality rights, characters, etc. Can a trademark or service provider sublicense the use of the trademark to third parties in your jurisdiction? If so, does the right to sublicense exist by law or must it be granted by contract? If there is legislation, can the licensee effectively waive his right to sub-licenses? Are there any legal restrictions in your jurisdiction regarding the restrictions that a licensor may impose on users of its software in a license agreement? Such an effect generally does not exist after the termination of the license agreement. If the license agreement prevents the licensee from challenging the validity of the intellectual property right after termination of the license, the licensee may be excluded from any challenge to validity: see Campbell v G Hopkins & Sons, 49 RPC 38 (Ch 1931). . . .